Basic Facts

Pakistan traces its history back to 2,500 years B.C., when a highly developed civilization in the Indus Valley, excavations at Harappa, Moenjodaro, Kot Diji and Mehr Garh have brought to light, the evidence of an advanced civilization existing even in more ancient times.

Around 1,500 B.C., the Aryans overwhelmed this region, and influenced the Hindu civilization, whose center moved to Ganges Valley, further east. Later, the Persians occupied the northern region in the 5th century B.C. up to the 2nd century A.D. The Greeks came in 327 B.C., under Alexander of Macedonia, and passed away like a meteor. In 712 AD, the Arabs, led by Muhammad Bin Qasim, Landed somewhere near modern Karachi and ruled the lower half of Pakistan for two hundred years. During this time, Islam took roots in the soil and influenced the life, culture and traditions of the people.

In the 10th century AD, began the systematic conquest of South Asia by the Muslims from Central Asia, who ruled here up to the 18th century,. Then the British became the masters of the land and ruled for nearly 200 years and for only 100 years over what is Pakistan now. The Muslim revival began towards the end of the last century when Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, a renowned Muslim leader a of office is five years. The National Assembly determine the major policy issue and passes annual budget and legislation. It elects the Prime Minister from among its members. The Prime Minister forms his / her cabinet from among members of the Assembly and Senate. Provinces have their own elected legislative Assemblies and Chief Ministers. Majority of the members, of the upper house are elected by the Provincial Assemblies.

Official Name Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Father of the Nation Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
President of Pakistan Mr. Mamnoon Hussain
Prime Minister of Pakistan Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif
Capital Islamabad
Area 796,095 Sq. km.
Punjab: 205,344
Sindh: 140,914
North West Frontier Province: 74,521
Balochistan: 347,190
Federally Administered Tribal Areas: 27,220
Islamabad (Pakistan Capital): 906
Pakistan Population 159,196,336
Ethnic composition 97% Muslims (77% Sunni, 20% Shi’a), 3% Christian, Hindu and others
Per capita income US$ 652
Currency Pak Rupee
Exports Cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items carpets, sports goods, fruits, handicrafts Sea Food (Fisheries)
Imports Industrial equipment, vehicles, iron ore, petroleum, edible oil
Languages Urdu (National language)
English (Official) & More other Languages include Sindhi, Punjabi, Balochi, Salaiki & ….
Literacy rate 45.7 %
Government Parliamentary form
Parliament It consists of two Houses i.e., the Senate (Upper House) and the National Assembly (Lower House). The Senate is a permanent legislative body and symbolises a process of continuity in the national affairs. It consists of 87 members. The four Provincial Assemblies, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Federal Capital form its electoral college. The National Assembly has a total membership of 217 elected through adult suffrage (Muslim 207 and Minorities 10).
Pakistan National Flag Dark green with a white vertical bar, a white crescent and a five-pointed star in the middle. The Flag symbolises Pakistan’s profound commitment to Islam and Islamic world.
National Anthem Approved in June, 1954
Verses Composed by: Abul Asar Hafeez Jullundhri
Tune Composed by: Ahmed G. Chagla
Duration: 80 seconds
State Emblem The State Emblem consists of:

  1. The crescent and star which is symbol of Islam
  2. The shield in the center shows four major crops
  3. Wreath surrounding the shield represents cultural heritage
  4. Scroll contains Quaid’s motto: Unity Faith, Discipline
National Flower Jasmine
Flora Pine, Oak, Poplar, Deodar, Maple, Mulberry
Fauna The Pheasant, Leopard, Deer, Ibex, Chinkara, Black buk, Neelgai, Markhor, Marcopolo sheep, Green turtles, River & Sea fish, Crocodile, Water Fowls
Popular games Cricket, Hockey, Football
Tourist’s resorts Murree, Quetta, Hunza, Ziarat, Swat, Kaghan, Chitral and Gilgit
Archaeological sites Moenjo Daro, Harappa, Taxila, Kot Diji, Mehr Garh
Major Cities Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Multan, Sialkot and Faisalabad
Agriculture Major crops are cotton, wheat, rice and sugarcane
Total cropped area 22.14 million hectares
Industry Textiles, cement, fertilizer, steel, sugar, electric goods, shipbuilding
Energy Major sources:
Oil, Coal, Hydel, Thermal, Nuclear and Liquid Petroleum Gas WAPDA’s total installed power generating capacity: 11,246 MW
Famous Mountain Peaks K-2 (Mt. Godwin Austin): 28,250 ft./8611 m (2nd in World)
Nanga Parbat : 26,660 ft./8126 m (8th in World)
Gasherbrum-I: 26,470 ft./8068 m (11th in World)
Famous Mountain Passes
  • The Khyber Pass
  • The Kurram Pass
  • The Tochi Pass
  • The Gomal Pass
  • The Bolan Pass
  • The Lowari Pass
  • The Khunjrab Pass
The Indus 2896 km
Jhelum 825 km
Chenab 1242 km
Ravi 901 km
Sutlej 1551 km
Beas (tributary of Sutlej) 398 km
Famous Glaciers
Siachin 75 Km
Batura 55 Km
Baltoro 62 Km


More than 200 daily newspapers and 1700 magazines and periodicals are published throughout the country in English, Urdu and other regional languages.

Travel Within Pakistan:

PIA serves 38 domestic airports with scheduled connections, including multiple daily flights between major cities of Karachi, Quetta, Multan, Lahore, Islamabad and Peshawar. Two private airlines, Aero Asia and Bhoja Air, also serve Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad and Islamabad. PIA has daily flights linking the Northern tourist towns of Gilgit, Skardu and Saidu Sharif with Islamabad, and Chitral with Peshawar. All flights to the northern region are subject to good weather.

Pakistan has an extensive network of roads and highways, linking every big and small town. There are several highways like Grand Trunk Road between Lahore and Peshawar, Super Highway and National Highway linking Karachi with interior of Sindh and Punjab, Indus Highway linking Peshawar with the Southern Punjab, RCD Highway linking Karachi with Quetta and on to Taftan (Pak-Iran border) and the Karakoram Highway joining Islamabad with Kashgar (China) through Abbottabad, Gilgit Hunza and Khunjrab Pass. A land mark has been achieved with the completion of Lahore-Islamabad motorway (M2) and Faisalabad-Pindi Bhatian Motorway (M3), which have opened some of the remote areas of Pakistan for visitors. Another project of Motorway i.e. Islamabad-Peshawar (M1) will be completed in near future.

You will find all types of public transport in Pakistan. Taxis, auto rickshaws, vans, tongas (horse & carriage) and mini-buses are used for traveling within the city/town/village limits, whereas air-conditioned, non air-conditioned and deluxe type of buses, vans and coaches regularly ply between major cities and tourists destinations.

Pakistan has over 12,700 kms of railways, including 8,500 kms inherited from the British. Main line runs from Karachi to Peshawar connecting important tourist places like Moenjodaro, Sukkur, Bahawalpur, Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi / Islamabad, Taxila and Peshawar. Another main line link Quetta with the rest of the country, There are several daily trains running on these lines, however, the faster trains like Shalimar Express and Railcar have more comfortable air-conditioned compartments for travelers.

Pakistan Railways allow a 25% concession in all classes, to foreign tourists and 50% discount for foreign students. This concession is allowed on production of a recommendation certificate issued by any PTDC Tourist Information Centre and original passport, to the Divisional Superintendent of Pakistan Railways.

What To Eat?

Having inherited the culinary traditions of the Mughals, the Turks, the Central Asian and the Iranians, eating out in Pakistan is a rich and unique experience. Most local restaurants serve authentic Pakistani dishes straight from the oven, with the sites and sounds of a bazaar in the background. Meat, fish and vegetable dishes are seasoned with spices. Pakistani mutton and chicken curries and the oriental rice dish called, Pullao, are also popular with natives and foreigners alike.

Festivals And Holidays Of Pakistan:

Pakistan’s calendar features a great many Muslim religious festivals. Others are in memory of National Heroes or commemorate political events in the nation’s recent history. Muslim festivals are celebrated according to Muslim (Lunar) Calendar and may occur some 10 days earlier each successive Christian year. There are several folk festivals held regularly in every part of the country. Exact dates of such festivals are fixed annually by the District Administration of the respective area, at least 02 months in advance.

Pakistan’s Horticulture Production

Commodition 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
Vegetables (Production in 000 tons)
Potatoes 1567.88 2581.55 2538.97 2941.32 3141.41
Onion 2055.79 1816.46 2015.22 1704.14 1701.07
Cauliflower 208.54 212.22 215.62 234.66 213.41
Cabbage 74.64 75.69 71.73 71.98 69.08
Other Vegetables 2841.56 2850.05 2549.51 2907.25 2762.36
Sub-Total 6748.43 7535.99 7691.06 7859.36 7887.36
Condiments 218.55 171.58 219.91 294.36 292.28
Total 6966.99 7707.57 7910.98 8153.72 8180.19
G.Total 14114.61 13718.87 15089.78 15205.23 15121.48